Inserts data into a table.
INSERT [IGNORE] [INTO] tbl_name [(col_name,...)] [VALUES | VALUE] (expr,...),(...),... [ ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE col_name = insert_expr [, col_name = insert_expr] ... ] INSERT [IGNORE] [INTO] tbl_name [(col_name,...)] SELECT [WITH(force_random_reshuffle=1)] ... [ ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE col_name = insert_expr [, col_name = insert_expr] ... ] INSERT [IGNORE] [INTO] tbl_name SET col_name=expr, ... [ ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE col_name = insert_expr [, col_name = insert_expr] ... ] insert_expr: expr | VALUES(col_name)
- The first field of type
TIMESTAMP(6)has special behavior for insert operations, defaulting to the current timestamp value. Refer to the discussion of these types in the Data Types topic for more details. In addition, a field
fdeclared with the
DEFAULT <value>modifier will be set to
<value>if no explicit value for
- MemSQL supports constants,
DEFAULT, or nullary builtins such as
UNIX_TIMESTAMP()for expressions (
expr) for INSERTs.
INSERTqueries will fail if the maximum_table_memory limit has been reached. See /admin/memory_limits_include for more information.
- Non-local (cross-shard and sharded->reference)
INSERT ... SELECTqueries that are not the first statement of a transaction are not supported.
INSERT IGNOREdisables transactions for multi-INSERT. In this case, MemSQL will ignore records with duplicate keys and, without rolling back, continue inserting records with unique keys. This can speed up performance of multi-INSERT because it avoids an extra roundtrip between the aggregators and leaves.
- Multi-inserts are atomic in nature. For a multi-insert transaction, either all the rows are committed or the transaction is rolled back.
- Multi-inserts may or may not have consecutive
AUTO_INCREMENTvalues. See AUTO_INCREMENT behavior for more information.
- When you use the
IGNOREmodifier, data conversion errors for a row being inserted are ignored, and the row will be inserted with default values for fields where the conversion failed.
- If the
ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATEclause is specified, and a row is to be inserted that would result in a duplicate value in a
UNIQUEindex, MemSQL will instead perform an
UPDATEof the old row.
ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATEclause cannot be used in the same
INSERTquery, because their semantics contradict each other. For more information, see Query Errors
- When using
ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE, the affected row count will be 0 if no existing row is changed, 1 if a new row is inserted, and 2 if an existing row is updated.
ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATEcannot update unique key columns in columnstore tables.
- This command must be run on the master aggregator or a child aggregator node (see Node Requirements for MemSQL Commands). Note that when running this command on reference tables you must connect to the master aggregator.
INSERT ... SELECTinto
AUTO_INCREMENTcolumns can only be pushed down to leaves if the source column is also
AUTO_INCREMENTvalues are generated on the aggregator. This prevents insertion of
NULLvalues in the
AUTO_INCREMENTcolumn, if the source column isn’t
AUTO_INCREMENT. For more information, see AUTO_INCREMENT Behavior.
- Writing to multiple databases in a transaction is not supported.
To reduce skew, you can force the
INSERT … SELECT to redistribute the data with the
force_random_reshuffle query hint. A common use case for this hint is on keylessly sharded tables, as it allows forced redistribution of data among partitions, rather than inserting it locally into the same partition.
ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE
ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE allows you to perform an upsert of a row. For more information, see the Performing Upserts topic.
INSERT INTO mytbl (v) VALUES ("hello"), ("goodbye");
This example shows a successful insert even when converting a
NULL value to
int NOT NULL type, with the
NULL replaced by
memsql> CREATE TABLE mytbl2(a int not null); Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.72 sec) memsql> INSERT IGNORE mytbl2 VALUES(null); Query OK, 1 row affected (0.18 sec) memsql> SELECT * FROM mytbl2; +---+ | a | +---+ | 0 | +---+ 1 row in set (0.24 sec)
ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE and force_random_reshuffle
This example shows a simple
INSERT with both
ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE and
force_random_reshuffle. The rows from
mytbl_new will be inserted into
mytbl, and distributed across partitions.
memsql> INSERT INTO mytbl (column1, column2, column3) SELECT WITH(force_random_reshuffle=1) * FROM mytbl_new ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE column1 = VALUES(column1), column2 = VALUES(column2), column3 = VALUES(column3); **** Query OK, 29 rows affected (0.18 sec)